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Wikipedia: Digital humanities
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The '''digital humanities''' is an area of research, teaching, and creation
concerned with the intersection of computing and the disciplines of the
[[humanities]]. Developing from the field of '''humanities computing,'''
digital humanities embraces a variety of topics ranging from curating online
collections to data mining large cultural data sets. Digital Humanities
currently incorporates both digitized and born-digital materials and combines
the methodologies from the traditional humanities disciplines (such as
[[history]], [[philosophy]], [[linguistics]], [[literature]], [[art]],
[[archaeology]], [[music]], and [[cultural studies]]), as well as social
sciences <ref name=digital-humanities-network>{{cite web|title=Digital
Humanities Network|url=http://www.digitalhumanities.cam.ac.uk/|work=University
of Cambridge|accessdate=27 December 2012}}</ref>\n, with tools provided by
[[computing]] (such as [[data visualisation]], [[information retrieval]],
[[data mining]], [[statistics]], [[computational analysis]]) and [[electronic
publication|digital publishing]].\n\n==Objectives==\nDigital humanities
scholars use computational methods either to answer existing research questions
or to challenge existing theoretical paradigms, generating new questions and
pioneering new approaches. One goal is to systematically integrate computer
technology into the activities of humanities scholars,<ref
name=neh-odh-grant-opportunities>{{cite web|title=Grant
Opportunities|url=http://www.neh.gov/ODH/GrantOpportunities/tabid/57/Default.aspx|work=National
Endowment for the Humanities, Office of Digital Humanities Grant
Opportunities|accessdate=25 January 2012}}</ref>  such as the use of
text-analytic techniques; [[GIS]]; [[commons-based peer collaboration]];
interactive games and [[multimedia]] in the traditional [[arts]] and
[[humanities]] disciplines like it is done in contemporary empirical [[social
sciences]].\n\nAnother goal is to create scholarship that is more than texts
and papers. This includes the integration of [[multimedia]], [[metadata]] and
dynamic environments. An example of this is [[The Valley of the Shadow]]
project at the [[University of Virginia]] or the [[Vectors Journal of Culture
and Technology in a Dynamic Vernacular]] at [[University of Southern
California]].\n\nA growing number of researchers in digital humanities is using
computational methods for the analysis of large cultural data sets. Examples of
such projects were highlighted by the Humanities High Performance Computing
competition sponsored by the Office of Digital Humanities in 2008,<ref>{{cite
news|title=Grant Announcement for Humanities High Performance Computing
Program|date=\nDecember 1, 2008 |accessdate= May 1,
2012|first=Brett|last=Bobley|work=National Endowment for the
Humanities|url=http://www.neh.gov/divisions/odh/grant-news/grant-announcement-humanities-high-performance-computing-program}}</ref>
and also by the Digging Into Data challenge organized in 2009<ref>{{cite
news|title=Awardees of 2009 Digging into Data Challenge|date= 2009 |accessdate=
May 1, 2012|first=|last=|work=Digging into
Data|url=http://www.diggingintodata.org/Home/AwardRecipients2009/tabid/175/Default.aspx}}</ref>
and 2011<ref>{{cite news|title=NEH Announces Winners of 2011 Digging Into Data
Challenge|date= January 3, 2012 |accessdate= May 1,
2012|first=|last=|work=National Endowment for the
Humanities|url=http://www.neh.gov/news/press-release/2012-01-03}}</ref> by NEH
in collaboration with NSF,<ref name=cohen-embrace>{{Cite news| issn =
0362-4331| last = Cohen| first = Patricia| title = Humanities Scholars Embrace
Digital Technology| work = The New York Times| location = New York| accessdate
= 2012-06-07| date = 2010-11-16| url =
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/17/arts/17digital.html?pagewanted=all}}</ref>
and in partnership with [[Joint Information Systems Committee|JISC]] in the UK,
and [[Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council|SSHRC]] in
Canada.<ref>{{cite news|title=Computationally Intensive Research in the
Humanities and Social Sciences: A Report on the Experiences of First
Respondents to the Digging Into Data Challenge| work=Council on Library and
Information Resources|first= Christa|last= Williford| first2= Charles|last2=
Henry|date=June 2012|ISBN=
978-1-932326-40-6|url=http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub151}}</ref>\n\nAt
present, formal academic recognition of digital work in the humanities remains
somewhat problematic, although there are signs that this might be
changing.{{Citation needed|date=May 2012}} Some universities do offer programs
related to the field.\n\n==Environments and tools==\nDigital humanities is also
involved in the creation of software, providing \"environments and tools for
producing, curating, and interacting with knowledge that is 'born digital' and
lives in various digital contexts.\"<ref>{{Cite news | last = Presner | first =
Todd | title = Digital Humanities 2.0: A Report on Knowledge | work =
Connexions | accessdate = 2012-06-09 | date = 2010 | url =
http://cnx.org/content/m34246/latest/ }}</ref> In this context, the field is
sometimes known as [[computational humanities]]. Many such projects share a
\"commitment to [[open standards]] and [[open source]].\"<ref>{{Cite book|
publisher = Ashgate| isbn = 9781409410683| pages = 11 - 26| page=14|editors =
Marilyn Deegan and Willard McCarty (eds.)| last = Bradley | first = John |
title = Collaborative Research in the Digital Humanities| chapter = No job for
techies: Technical contributions to research in digital humanities| location =
Farnham and Burlington| date = 2012}}</ref>\n\n==History==\nDigital humanities
descends from the field of humanities computing, of computationally enabled
\"formal representations of the human record,\"<ref
name=unsworth-humanities-computing>{{Cite journal | volume = 4| last =
Unsworth| first = John| title = What is Humanities Computing and What is not?|
journal = Jahrbuch für Computerphilologie| accessdate = 2012-05-31| date =
2002-11-08| url =
http://computerphilologie.tu-darmstadt.de/jg02/unsworth.html}}</ref> whose
origins reach back to the late 1940s in the pioneering work of [[Roberto
Busa]].<ref name=svensson>{{Cite journal| issn = 1938-4122| volume = 3| issue =
3| last = Svensson| first = Patrik| title = Humanities Computing as Digital
Humanities| journal = Digital Humanities Quarterly| accessdate = 2012-05-30|
date = 2009| url =
http://digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/3/3/000065/000065.html}}</ref><ref
name=hockney>{{Cite book| publisher = Blackwell| isbn = 1405103213| editors =
Susan Schreibman, Ray Siemens, John Unsworth (eds.)| last = Hockney| first =
Susan| title = Companion to Digital Humanities| chapter = The History of
Humanities Computing| location = Oxford| series = Blackwell Companions to
Literature and Culture| date = 2004|
url=http://www.digitalhumanities.org/companion/view?docId=blackwell/9781405103213/9781405103213.xml&chunk.id=ss1-2-1&toc.depth=1&toc.id=ss1-2-1&brand=9781405103213_brand}}</ref>\n\nThe
[[Text Encoding Initiative]], born from the desire to create a standard
encoding scheme for humanities electronic texts, is the outstanding achievement
of early humanities computing. The project was launched in 1987 and published
the first full version of the ''TEI Guidelines'' in May 1994.<ref name=hockney
/> \n\nIn the nineties, major digital text and image archives emerged at
centers of humanities computing in the U.S. (e.g. the ''Women Writers
Project'',<ref>{{Cite| publisher = Brown University| coauthors = | title =
Women Writers Project| accessdate = 2012-06-16| date =| url
=http://www.wwp.brown.edu/}}</ref> the ''Rossetti Archive'',<ref>{{Cite|
publisher = Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of
Virginia| coauthors = Jerome J. McGann (ed.)| title = Rossetti Archive|
accessdate = 2012-06-16| date =| url = http://www.rossettiarchive.org/}}</ref>
and the ''William Blake Archive''<ref>{{Cite| publisher = | coauthors = Morris
Eaves, Robert Essick, and Joseph Viscomi (eds.)| title = The William Blake
Archive| accessdate = 2012-06-16| date =| url =
http://www.blakearchive.org/}}</ref>), which demonstrated the sophistication
and robustness of text-encoding for literature.<ref>{{Cite journal| issn =
0093-1896| volume = 31| issue = 1| pages = 49-84| last = Liu| first = Alan|
title = Transcendental Data: Toward a Cultural History and Aesthetics of the
New Encoded Discourse| journal = Critical Inquiry| accessdate = 2012-06-16|
date = 2004| url = http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/427302}}</ref>\n\nThe
terminological change from \"humanities computing\" to \"digital humanities\"
has been attributed to [[John Unsworth]] and [[Ray Siemens]] who, as editors of
the monograph ''A Companion to Digital Humanities'' (2004), tried to prevent
the field from being viewed as \"mere digitization.\"<ref
name=\"fitzpatrick\">{{Cite news| last = Fitzpatrick| first = Kathleen| title =
The humanities, done digitally| work = The Chronicle of Higher Education|
accessdate = 2011-07-10| date = 2011-05-08| url =
http://chronicle.com/article/The-Humanities-Done-Digitally/127382/}}</ref>
Consequently, the hybrid term has created an overlap between fields like
rhetoric and composition, which use \"the methods of contemporary humanities in
studying digital objects,\"<ref name=\"fitzpatrick\"/> and digital humanities,
which uses \"digital technology in studying traditional humanities
objects\".<ref name=\"fitzpatrick\" /> The use of computational systems and the
study of computational media within the arts and humanities more generally has
been termed the 'computational turn'.<ref name=\"berry\">{{Cite news| last =
Berry| first = David| title = The Computational Turn: Thinking About the
Digital Humanities| work = Culture Machine| accessdate = 2012-01-31| date =
2011-06-01| url =
http://culturemachine.net/index.php/cm/article/viewDownloadInterstitial/440/470}}</ref>\n\nIn
2006 the [[National Endowment for the Humanities]] (NEH), the federal granting
agency for scholarships in the humanities, launched the Digital Humanities
Initiative (renamed Office of Digital Humanities in 2008), which made
widespread adoption of the term \"digital humanities\" all but irreversible in
the United States.<ref name=kirschenbaum-dept />\n\nDigital humanities emerged
from its former niche status and became \"big news\"<ref
name=kirschenbaum-dept>{{Cite news| volume =| issue = 150| last = Kirschenbaum|
first = Matthew G. | title = What is Digital Humanities and What's it Doing in
English Departments?| work = ADE Bulletin| accessdate = | date = 2010| url =
http://mkirschenbaum.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/kirschenbaum_ade150.pdf}}</ref>
at the 2009 [[Modern Language Association |MLA convention]] in Philadelphia,
where digital humanists made \"some of the liveliest and most visible
contributions\"<ref>{{Cite news| issn = 0009-5982| last = Howard| first =
Jennifer| title = The MLA Convention in Translation| work = The Chronicle of
Higher Education | accessdate = 2012-05-31| date = 2009-12-31| url =
http://chronicle.com/article/The-MLA-Convention-in/63379/}}</ref> and had their
field hailed as \"the first 'next big thing' in a long time.\"<ref
name=pannapacker-mla>{{Cite web| last = Pannapacker| first = William| title =
The MLA and the Digital Humanities| work = Brainstorm| format = The Chronicle
of Higher Education| accessdate = 2012-05-30| date = 2009-12-28| url =
http://chronicle.com/blogPost/The-MLAthe-Digital/19468/}}</ref>\n\n==Organizations
and Institutions==\n\nThe field of digital humanities is served by several
organisations: [[The Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing]]
(ALLC), the [[Association for Computers and the Humanities]] (ACH), and the
[[Society_for_Digital_Humanities|Society for Digital Humanities/Société pour
l'étude des médias interactifs]] (SDH/SEMI), which are joined under the
umbrella organisation of the [[Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations]]
(ADHO). The alliance funds a number of projects such as the [[Digital
Humanities Quarterly]], supports  the [[Text Encoding Initiative]], the
organisation and sponsoring of workshops and conferences, as well as the
funding of small projects, awards and bursaries.<ref>{{Cite journal| doi =
10.1093/llc/fqr002| volume = 26| issue = 1| pages = 3–4| last = Vanhoutte|
first = Edward| title = Editorial| journal = Literary and Linguistic Computing|
accessdate = 2011-07-11| date = 2011-04-01| url =
http://llc.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/1/3.short}}</ref>\n\nADHO also
oversees a joint annual conference, which began as the ACH/ALLC (or ALLC/ACH)
conference, and is now known as the [[Digital Humanities
conference]].\n\nCenterNet is an international network of of about 100 digital
humanities centers in 19 countries, working together to benefit digital
humanities and related fields.<ref>{{cite
web|url=http://digitalhumanities.org/centernet/about/|work=CenterNet|title=About|accessdate=June
16,2012}}</ref><ref name=caraco>{{Cite journal| volume = 57| issue = 2| last =
Caraco| first = Benjamin| title = Les digital humanities et les bibliothèques |
journal = Le Bulletin des Bibliothèques de France| accessdate = 12 April 2012|
date = 1 January 2012| url =
http://bbf.enssib.fr/consulter/bbf-2012-02-0069-002#appelnote-11}}</ref>\n\n==Criticism==\nMany
conventional humanities scholars dismiss digital humanities as
\"whimsical.\"<ref name=cohen-embrace /> The literary theorist [[Stanley Fish]]
claims that the digital humanities pursue a revolutionary agenda and thereby
undermine the conventional standards of \"pre-eminence, authority and
disciplinary power.\"<ref name=fish-mortality>{{Cite news | last = Fish| first
= Stanley | title = The Digital Humanities and the Transcending of Mortality |
work = The New York Times | location = New York | accessdate = 2012-05-30| date
= 2012-01-09 | url =
http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/09/the-digital-humanities-and-the-transcending-of-mortality/}}</ref>\n\n==See
also==\n\n===Centers===\n\n*[[Center for History and New Media | Roy Rosenzweig
Center for History and New Media]]\n*[http://cdrh.unl.edu Center for Digital
Research in the Humanities, University of Nebraska-Lincoln]\n*[[Department of
Digital Humanities|Department of Digital Humanities at King's College
London]]\n*[[Digital Humanities Observatory]]\n*[[Humanities Advanced
Technology and Information Institute]]\n*[[Institute for Advanced Technology in
the Humanities]]\n*[[Maryland Institute for Technology in the
Humanities]]\n*[[UCL Centre for Digital
Humanities]]\n\n===Journals===\n\n*[http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ndcr20
Digital Creativity]\n*[http://journalofdigitalhumanities.org Journal of Digital
Humanities]\n*[[Digital Studies]]\n*[[Digital Medievalist]]\n*[[Digital
Humanities Quarterly]]\n*[[Literary and Linguistic Computing]]\n*[[Southern
Spaces]]\n\n===Meetings===\n\n*[[Digital Humanities
conference]]\n*[[THATCamp]]\n\n===Miscellaneous===\n\n*[[Computers and
writing]]\n*[[Computational archaeology]]\n*[[Cybertext]]\n*[[Cultural
analytics]]\n*[[Digital Classicist]]\n*[[Digital library]]\n*[[Digital
Medievalist]]\n*[[Digital history]]\n*[[Electronic Cultural Atlas
Initiative]]\n*[[Electronic literature]]\n*[[EpiDoc]]\n*[[Humanistic
informatics]]\n*[[Multimedia literacy]]\n*[[New media]]\n*[[Systems
theory]]\n*[[Stylometry]]\n*[[Text Encoding Initiative]]\n*[[Text
mining]]\n*[[Topic model|Topic
Modeling]]\n*[[Transliteracy]]\n\n==References==\n{{reflist
|2}}\n\n==Bibliography==\n#Berry, D. M., ed. (2012)
''[http://www.palgrave.com/products/title.aspx?pid=493310 Understanding Digital
Humanities]'', Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. \n#Busa, Roberto. (1980). ‘The
Annals of Humanities Computing: The Index Thomisticus’, in Computers and the
Humanities vol. 14, pp.83-90. \n#Computers and the Humanities
(1966-2004)\n#Celentano A., Cortesi A., Mastandrea P. (2004), Informatica
Umanistica: una disciplina di confine, Mondo Digitale, vol. 4, pp.
44-55.\n#Condron Frances, Michael Fraser, and Stuart Sutherland, eds. (2001),
''[http://users.ox.ac.uk/~ctitext2/resguide2000/contents.shtml Oxford
University Computing Services Guide to Digital Resources for the Humanities]'',
West Virginia University Press. \n#Fitzpatrick, Kathleen (2011).
''[http://nyupress.org/books/book-details.aspx?bookId=4998 Planned
Obsolescence: Publishing, Technology, and the Future of the Academy]''. New
York; NYU Press. \n#Gold, Matthew K., ed. (2012),
''[http://www.upress.umn.edu/book-division/books/debates-in-the-digital-humanities
Debates In the Digital Humanities]''. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press. \n#Hancock, B. & Giarlo, M.J. (2001).
''[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/07378830110405139 Moving to XML: Latin texts XML
conversion project at the Center for Electronic Texts in the Humanities]''.
Library Hi Tech, 19(3), 257-264.\n#Hockey, Susan. (2001), ''Electronic Text in
the Humanities: Principles and Practice'', Oxford: Oxford University Press.\n#
Honing, Henkjan (2008). The role of ICT in music research: A bridge too far?
''International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing'', 1 (1), 67-75.
\n#Inman James, Cheryl reed, & Peter Sands, eds. (2003), ''Electronic
Collaboration in the Humanities: Issues and Options'', Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum.\n#Kenna, Stephanie and Seamus Ross, eds. (1995), ''Networking in the
humanities: Proceedings of the Second Conference on Scholarship and Technology
in the Humanities held at Elvetham Hall, Hampshire, UK 13-16 April 1994''.
London: Bowker-Saur.\n#Kirschenbaum, Matthew (2008).
''[http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2&tid=11336
Mechanisms: New Media and the Forensic Imagination]''. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT
Press. \n#McCarty, Willard (2005), ''Humanities Computing'', Basingstoke:
Palgrave Macmillan.\n#Moretti, Franco (2007),
''[http://www.versobooks.com/books/261-graphs-maps-trees Graphs, Maps, Trees:
Abstract Models for Literary History]''. New York: Verso. \n#Mullings,
Christine, Stephanie Kenna, Marilyn Deegan, and Seamus Ross, eds. (1996), ''New
Technologies for the Humanities'' London: Bowker-Saur.\n#Newell, William H.,
ed. (1998), ''Interdisciplinarity: Essays from the Literature.'' New York:
College Entrance Examination Board.\n#Nowviskie, Bethany, ed. (2011).
''[http://mediacommons.futureofthebook.org/alt-ac/ Alt-Academy: Alternative
Academic Careers for Humanities Scholars]''. New York: MediaCommons. \n#Ramsay,
Steve. (2011).
''[http://www.press.uillinois.edu/books/catalog/75tms2pw9780252036415.html
Reading Machines: Toward an Algorithmic Criticism]''. Urbana: University of
Illinois Press. \n#Schreibman Susan, Siemens Ray, and Unsworth John eds.
(2004). ''[http://www.digitalhumanities.org/companion/ A Companion To Digital
Humanities]'' Blackwell Publishers. \n#Selfridge-Field, Eleanor (ed). (1997)
Beyond MIDI: The Handbook of Musical Codes. Cambridge, MA: The MIT
Press.\n#Unsworth, John, (2005).
''[http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/~jmu2m/Kings.5-00/primitives.html
Scholarly Primitives: What methods do humanities researchers have in common,
and how might our tools reflect this?]''\n#Warwick C., Terras M. & Nyhan J.,
eds. (2012) ''Digital Humanities in Practice'', Facet\n\n==External
links==\n\n\n*[http://www.digitalhumanities.org/ The Alliance of Digital
Humanities Organizations]\n*[http://digitalhumanities.org/centernet/
CenterNet]\n*[http://tapor.ualberta.ca/taporwiki/index.php/Day_in_the_Life_of_the_Digital_Humanities
A Day in the Life of the Digital
Humanities]\n*[http://lab.softwarestudies.com/2012/03/computational-humanities-vs-digital.html
Lev Manovich, Computational Humanities vs. Digital
Humanities]\n*[http://digitalhumanities101.wordpress.com EPFL Course about
digital humanities]\n\n[[Category:Digital humanities| ]]\n\n[[ar:إنسانيات
رقمية]]\n[[cy:Dyniaethau digidol]]\n[[de:Digital Humanities]]\n[[fr:Humanités
numériques]]\n[[it:Informatica
umanistica]]\n[[ja:デジタル・ヒューマニティーズ]]\n[[sl:Digitalna
humanistika]]\n[[sh:Дигиталне хуманистичке науке]]\n[[th:มนุษยศาสตร์ดิจิทัล]]